MLA Formatting and Citations Guidelines (9th Ed.)

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MLA Formatting and Citations Guidelines (9th Ed.)

Essay Body:

  • 1 in. margins
  • Double spaced
  • 12 pt. font
  • Title requires no special formatting
  • Name, instructors name, course, and date go in the upper left corner – all on separate lines
  • Indent the first line of each paragraph

Works Cited:

  • Should be its own page
  • Alphabetized by author’s last name
  • Each citation should have a hanging indent
  • Double spaced

In-Text Citations
Print Sources:

  • Parenthetical citations are used to cite sources within the body of the paper.
  • Author’s last name and page numbers need to be in parenthetical citations.
  • If multiple authors, list their last names in the text itself, or in the parenthetical citation.

ex. Dreams express a “profound aspect of personality” and this expression reveals that Margaret had a desire to nurture (Foulkes 184).

Special Cases
Two Authors → (Smith and Kim 9).
More than Two Authors → (Smith et al. 9)
Citing a Play → (Act. Scene. Line(s))
Poem → (lines 11-12)
No Author → (“Title of Work” page #)

Note: If the author’s name is stated in the sentence, it does not need to be included in the parenthetical citation. In this case, only the page number is needed.
ex. According to Foulkes’ study, dreams express a “profound aspect of personality” (184).

Internet Sources:

  • Include the author's last name; if none, article name, or website name.
  • Page number is not needed.

ex. Taylor Swift was the top female artist with the most streams during 2021 (Chartdata).

Works Cited Page

Author’s Last Name, First Name. Title. Publisher, Publication Date.


ex. Said, Edward W. Culture and Imperialism. Knopf, 1994.

Anthology, Reference, or Collection:
Author’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Essay.” Title of Collection, edited by Editor’s Name(s), Publisher, Year, Pages.

ex. Burkeman, Oliver. “The Benefits of ‘Negative Visualization.’”

Write It Review: A Process Approach to College Essays with Readings, edited by Michael Heumann, Kathleen M. Moore, Linda Strahan, Kendall Hunt Publishing Company, 2018, pp. 145-149.

Article in a Scholarly Journal:
Author(s). “Title of Article.” Title of Journal, Volume, Issue, Year, pages.

ex. Bagchi, Alaknanda. "Conflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the

Subaltern in Mahasweta Devi's Bashai Tudu." Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature, vol. 15, no. 1, 1996, pp. 41-50.

Author’s Name. “Article of Webpage Title.” Title of Website. Publisher, Publication or Posting Date. Location (pages, paragraphs and/or URL, DOI or permalink). Date of Access.

ex. Lundman, Susan. "How to Make Vegetarian Chili." eHow, 12 June 2021.



Adapted by Alma Contreras, Summer Quarter, 2022